The Floating Spots Are Haemorrhages That Require Prompt Treatment.

Corresponding author: H. no dataUri Saragovi, uri.saragovi@mcgill.ca Newly Born Neurons Reconstruct Song-Learning Circuit in Songbirds During the breeding season, male songbirds sing more frequently and tend to stick with a few tried-and-true tunes to attract a mate. Previous research has shown they also grow new neurons in the neural circuit governing song behavior, but it wasn’t clear whether and how these new neurons integrated into existing brain circuits and contributed to song behavior. In this study of white-crowned sparrows, researchers found these new neurons linked up with others in the song circuit, and the more neurons that were added to the circuit, the less variation the sparrow showed from one song to the next. Corresponding author: Rachel Cohen, rachel.cohen@mnsu.edu Specific Enzyme in Brain Targets Signaling for Learning and Memory The messenger molecule cAMP plays an important role in learning and memory in the hippocampus, and alterations in its signaling could play a role in cognitive disorders. Previous research found that blocking the family of enzymes tasked with breaking down cAMP can improve memory and the ability of brain cells to alter the strength of connections with each other in cases of sleep deprivation and traumatic brain injury, but it also produces undesirable side effects. In this study, researchers identify a specific enzyme from this family that targets cAMP-dependent signaling for learning and memory. Drugs targeting this specific enzyme could be a novel way to treat cognitive deficits. Corresponding author: Ted Abel, abele@sas.upenn.edu The Journal of Neuroscience is published by the Society for Neuroscience, an organization of nearly 38,000 basic scientists and clinicians who study the brain and nervous system.

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Severe and permanent retinal damage can occur before you notice any of the following symptoms: Blurred vision that does not improve with glasses Vision that worsens, improves, then worsens again Sudden loss of vision, particularly following events such as coughing or sneezing Seeing “cobwebs,” “spots,” or a “hole” in your field of vision Retinopathy is the general name of a condition of the eyes in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen to the retina of the eyes are damaged. Retinopathy of prematurity — No treatment is recommended during the early stages. The floating spots are haemorrhages that require prompt treatment. In some people with diabetic retinopathy, the blood that leaks from blood vessels in the retina may also leak into the vitreous humour, clouding vision. New blood vessels grow on the retina. This can lead to blood and other liquid leaking into the retina from the blood vessels. This results in blurred vision or poor night vision. The early stages of diabetic retinopathy usually have no symptoms. no dataRetinal detachment. NPDR can cause changes in the eye, including: Microaneurysms: small bulges in blood vessels of the retina that often leak fluid. During a vitrectomy, the retina surgeon carefully removes blood, fibrous tissue and vitreous from the eye, relieving traction on the retina and preventing retinal detachment. Although several medical conditions e.g., sickle cell disease, lupus can cause retinopathy, the most common causes are diabetes and hypertension high blood pressure. The effect of diabetes on the eye is called diabetic retinopathy. The retina is the part inside the eye that senses light.

People with early diabetic retinopathy may not need treatment. The poorly nourished retina then sends out some type of chemical distress signal that causes new blood vessels to bud and grow proliferate on the retinal surface.  Retinopathy can also be seen in premature newborns. They include several days of blurred vision after each treatment and possible loss of side peripheral vision. A new class of drugs has recently become available to treat macular oedema and they are often used in conjunction with the laser therapy. This may cause spots floating in your vision, flashes of light or severe vision loss. In most cases, the pressure causes drainage of the aqueous humour to slow down so that it builds up in the anterior chamber. If you have mild or moderate non proliferative diabetic retinopathy, you may not need treatment right away. The angiogram test involves the injection of a contrast agent or dye into your arm.

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